Phân tích Chuyện cũ trong phủ Chúa Trịnh của Phạm Đình Hổ

Analysis of Old Stories in Lord Trinh’s Palace by Pham Dinh Ho


Topic: Analysis of the passage The old story in the Trinh Lord’s palace quotes Vu Trung’s essay by Pham Dinh Ho.

Composing the article: Pham Dinh Ho’s Old Story in Lord Trinh Palace

I. Basic knowledge

1. The lavish, insatiable playfulness of Lord Trinh and his servants in the palace is described through specific scenes and things:

– The construction of pavilions and insatiable wandering animals;

– Detailed description of the walking arrangements of Lord Trinh;

– The collection of products and precious things; The decoration in the palace is annoying and expensive.

The author discreetly reveals his subjective attitude towards the luxurious entertainment of Lord Trinh when describing the garden scene in the Lord’s palace: “When the night is quiet, the sound of birds chirping on all sides, or half of it. The night is as noisy as the rain and the wind, breaking and breaking, those who are awake know that it is a million misfortune.”

The author’s feeling about the “unfortunate million” has the same meaning as criticism, warning about the people’s habit of playing and enjoying lavish pleasures on the sweat and blood of the people, which will lead to the decline and breakup of the people. love.

2. The mandarins and servants in the Lord’s palace “relyed the wind to break bamboo shoots”, harassed and plundered the people with brazen and blatant tricks, robbing and shouting at the same time: “They searched to see which house had pots. Ornamental flowers, good birds, or good-natured birds, then immediately put the two words “preaching” in. At night, the boys climbed over the wall to sneak out, sent soldiers to take them away, and then charged with the crime of hiding offerings to threaten to take money. The stone or the tree is so big that even the house has to destroy the wall to carry it out. The rich are falsely accused of hiding their offerings, often have to give up their belongings and cry to death, sometimes knocking down mountains, or destroying ornamental plants to avoid disasters.

At the end of the essay, the author recorded a real thing that happened in his house: “Our house is in Ha Khau ward, Tho Xuong district, in front of the front house, there is a pear tree, a few dozen feet high, when it blooms. flowers, white and fragrant; In front of the middle house, there are also two white pomegranate trees, red pomegranate trees, when the fruit looks very beautiful, we all ordered to cut it down.” The real story happened in the author’s own family, which has the effect of increasing the authenticity and vividness of the evidences condemning Lord Trinh and the mandarins.

3. Comparing the characteristics of the essay form with the story form through the Old Story in the Trinh lord’s palace and the story of the Nam Xuong daughter, it is possible to draw comments on the difference between these two genres as follows:

– Essay is a style of writing used to record specific and real people and events, through which the writer focuses on expressing his or her attitudes, feelings, thoughts, perceptions and evaluations about people and life. living. Story is a genre that reflects reality through an expanded picture of life through events and events occurring in human life.

– Stories often have to have plot and characters; The plot is presented with a beginning, a development, an ending; Characters are built with characteristics of appearance, detailed description of inner feelings, psychological developments, etc. An essay is an arbitrary note, sometimes scattered, not following a plot but mainly to reveal author’s feelings and attitudes.

II. Skill training

Essay writing is a writing style that records events in a specific, vivid but spontaneous way, which does not mean that the essay is arranged in a messy, out of order. In fact, it just means that essay writing does not depend on a fixed pattern (e.g. Tang Lu poetry). Depending on each specific situation, the author selects and arranges details and events in a certain order to highlight the problem.

In this essay, the first part of the author describes the lavish lifestyle of the military officers in the Trinh lord’s palace, the second part deals with the suffering of the people before the harassment of the mandarins. In the last part, the author points out a few ideas about his family. Every detail has the effect of exposing the rottenness of the Le – Trinh feudal government in a period of near decline.

Reading convention:

In this essay, there are many ancient words that are difficult to read (pearl, strange beast, ancient wood, monster stone, staff, phoenix …), need to practice reading each word many times, then read the whole paragraph and then read the whole article.


Pham Dinh Ho (1768 – 1839), commonly known as Chieu Ho, was born in a family of academics in Dan Loan village, Duong An district, Hai Duong province. Father passed his bachelor’s degree and became a mandarin under the Le dynasty. Since childhood, Chieu Ho has cherished the dream of literature. Later, he entered Quoc Tu Giam School and passed the exam, but because of the uncertain times, he had to flee to his hometown to teach. In 1821, King Minh Mang of the Nguyen Dynasty traveled to the North. Pham Dinh Ho presented some of his works to the king and was appointed an official at the Academy. After a while, he resigned. In 1826, Minh Mang summoned Pham Dinh Ho again to Hue to take the post of Teu Quoc Tu Giam, and then Thi as a scholar.

Pham Dinh Ho started composing in the Tay Son Dynasty, but mainly in the early years of the Nguyen Dynasty. He left behind many works, of which the most valuable are the two chronicles of Vu Trung’s writings and the Tang Tang and Con Luc.

Vu Trung’s essay includes 88 small stories, written in an essay style, providing readers with knowledge about culture and communication, customs, and geographical features and scenic spots of the homeland. country.

The old story in the Trinh Lord’s palace records scenes of daily life in the Lord’s palace during Trinh Sam’s time. Thereby, the author implicitly condemns the luxurious and immoral play of Trinh Sam and his subordinates.

When he first ascended to the throne of God, Trinh Sam was a tough, intelligent, decisive, wise, and wise man. But after pacifying the opposing factions and restoring discipline to the court, they gradually gave birth to a haughty, luxurious belly, and concubines were very picky, playing as they please. Lord Trinh was infatuated with Dang Thi Hue, immersed in a life of luxury, playing and enjoying himself, leaving the eldest son to establish a second child, causing a lot of tyranny, which led to the scene of flesh and blood turmoil. The princes competed for power, killing each other. Trinh Sam died in 1782, having been on the throne for 16 years.

Trinh Sam’s lavish and lavish play habits and his servants are described by the author through typical details such as Trinh Sam forging many palaces and temples in different places to satisfy his desire to go out. , see your beautiful scenery. The construction of the pavilion went on continuously for many years, consuming a lot of money. Not paying much attention to the great interests of the nation and nation, on the contrary, Lord Trinh spent a lot of time enjoying himself:

Three times a month, Vuong went to Thuy Lien Palace on the shore of West Lake, soldiers arranged their servants around the four sides of the lake, the inner gods were all covered with scarves, dressed in women’s clothes, and displayed groceries around the lake for sale.

Wherever the boat went, the officials chanted and chanted as they liked to visit the shore to buy and sell things like at the shops in the market. There is also a time for musicians to sit on the bell tower of Tran Quoc Pagoda, or under the shade of a certain stone wharf tree, mixing some music.

In this passage, the fakes exposed the greedy nature of Lord Trinh and his minions. Relying on their authority, they blatantly force good people to hand over to God’s government precious things that God likes:

In the evening, surrounded by exotic animals, ancient rustic jelly, flower pots and ornamental plants in folk places, God was able to collect, not lacking anything. Sometimes taking the big banyan tree, cumbersome branches and leaves, carried from the north across the river to bring back. It is like an old tree growing on the young head of a rock hole, its roots are several feet long and it takes an army to carry it…

The author reveals the bottomless greed of Lord Trinh with the art of storytelling and description. The evidence given is all objective, no comments. Some events are described meticulously, making a very deep impression on the reader.

The author’s displeasure is quite discreetly expressed in these meaningful sentences:

Whenever the night is quiet, the sound of birds chirping and gibbons chirping all around or at midnight as noisy as the rain and wind, pretending to break up the flock, the awake know that it is a million misfortune.

The scene described is a real scene of splendid gardens, full of pearls, strange animals, ancient trees, monsters, painted, adorning the natural storms of the wharf, young heads, but the sound is sexy. feeling horrible before something shattered, painful, not before a peaceful, poetic beauty. It was an unfortunate million, that is, an ominous omen, foreshadowing the inevitable decline of a dynasty that only cared about eating and drinking on the sweat, tears and blood of the good people. Indeed, that momentum happened not long after Trinh Sam’s death.

During Trinh Sam’s time, the eunuchs serving in the Lord’s palace were favored because they were very effective in helping God to play games and enjoy them. Therefore, they often rely on God’s position to rampage, act violently, “thanks to the wind breaking bamboo shoots”, harassing and plundering the good people with many vile and cruel tricks. The trick they often use is the act of stealing and shouting at the same time. People were harmed twice, otherwise, they also had to destroy their own property to avoid disaster. That is completely unreasonable and unfair. The eunuchs scavenged their pockets full of greed, while earning a reputation for being diligent in serving the Lord:

The eunuchs often rely on the wind to break bamboo shoots and go out to scare them. They search to see if there is a house with potted flowers, ornamental plants, good birds, and immediately put the word “servant” in. At night, the boys climbed over the wall to sneak out, sent soldiers to take them away, and then charged with the crime of hiding offerings to threaten money. The stone or the tree is so big that even the house has to destroy the wall to carry it out. The rich, who were falsely accused of hiding their offerings, often had to give up their belongings and cry for death, sometimes having to knock down mountains, or destroy ornamental plants to avoid disasters.

At the end of the passage describing the sinister and cruel tricks of these eunuchs, the author recounts an incident that once happened in his family: Regretfully broken, but the landlord had to send a servant to cut off a pear tree and two precious pomegranate trees in the garden to avoid disaster:

Our house is in Ha Khau ward, Tho Xuong district. In front of the front house, there is a pear tree, several dozen zhang tall when in bloom, white and fragrant, in front of the middle street, there are also two white pomegranate trees, red pomegranate trees, and two pomegranate trees in front of the middle street. It looks so beautiful, my palace lady sent it off for the same reason.

Such a narrative style has greatly enhanced the charm of the truthful details that the author has recorded above, while also enriching the writing style. The author’s feelings are also discreetly conveyed through it.

Through this passage, the author accuses the mandarins in Lord Trinh’s palace of being greedy and evil, doing things contrary to the way of heaven and the hearts of people. Of course, the people will rise up to overthrow them.

The story is written very naturally by the author. Realistic details and phenomena are meticulously described without being boring, interspersed with brief and sharp words, which further increases the attractiveness of the work.

By the genre of essay writing spontaneously the events seen and heard, the old story in the Trinh lord’s palace by Pham Dinh Ho has helped us understand more about the extravagant and extravagant life of kings and feudal mandarins of the time. King Le and Lord Trinh declined. At the same time, initially recognize the basic characteristics of the old essay genre and appreciate the artistic value of Pham Dinh Ho’s realistic notes.

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